Let’s take transport where the next 10 years will be the most disruptive in the industry’s history. Tech breakthroughs pioneered by the likes of Google, Uber, Apple, and Intel alongside startups and traditional carmakers will mean it’s only a matter of time before digital technologies including the Internet of Things (IoT), cloud, drones, AI, and robotics enable connected autonomous cars to become the norm. Touted advantages include energy efficiency, and reduced urban congestion and accidents. But to be truly transformational the autonomous fleets of the future need to be cost competitive and zero emissions, replacing traditional internal combustion engines, and they need to support shared and mass mobility services. It’s a design choice for those backing the autonomous vehicles race, but it’s the only way the 4IR can have a fundamentally positive impact on urban transport, the environment, and urban wellbeing.